Automatic Negative Thoughts (ANTs) can create a formidable barrier to well-being, especially for individuals with ADHD. Our blog, “Understanding and Overcoming Automatic Negative Thought Patterns for Individuals with ADHD,” seeks to shed light on this psychological phenomenon. We dissect various types of negative thought patterns such as all-or-nothing thinking and emotional reasoning, delve into common cognitive distortions, and offer actionable strategies for combating these mental traps. This informational resource aims to equip individuals with ADHD, as well as their support networks, with the knowledge and tools to break the cycle of negative thinking.

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Living with ADHD can present unique challenges in managing one’s thoughts and emotions. One common struggle for individuals with ADHD is the prevalence of automatic negative thinking. These negative thoughts patterns can significantly impact mental well-being, self-esteem, and overall quality of life. Even the most optimistic person is not immune to negative thinking, but for those with executive function deficits, the destructive chatter of self-doubt can be relentless.  Regulating emotions may be a significant challenge however the good news is that through direct instruction,  strategies can be taught and utilized to stop those negative thought patterns.

To better understand the impact of these cognitive distortions, it’s important to look at it from various angles to recognize the many forms they may take in daily life.

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What Are Negative Thoughts Called and How Are They Manifested?

Negative thoughts are often referred to as automatic negative thought (ANTs) patterns because they occur spontaneously and without conscious effort. Recognizing that these thoughts are automatic can empower individuals to challenge and reframe them. By acknowledging that negative thoughts do not reflect objective reality, individuals can take steps to change their thinking patterns.

All-or-Nothing Thinking (also referred to as Black-and-White Thinking or Dichotomous Thinking):

All-or-nothing thinking is often a problem where the person does not realize their own cognitive distortions that involves viewing situations in extreme, polarized terms. People with ADHD may find themselves perceiving situations as either perfect or disastrous, with no middle ground. This rigid thinking pattern can lead to unrealistic expectations, self-criticism, and feelings of failure. To combat all-or-nothing negative thinking patterns, it’s crucial to challenge these absolutes, embrace flexibility, and focus on progress rather than perfection.

Emotional Reasoning:

Emotional reasoning occurs when an individual’s emotions dictate their perception of reality. Individuals with ADHD may fall into this thinking trap, assuming that their negative emotions accurately reflect the truth. For example, feeling anxious about a social event might lead them to believe that everyone will judge them harshly. It is essential to recognize that emotions are not always reliable indicators of reality and to evaluate situations objectively, avoiding the tendency to resort to negative thinking.

Mental Filtering:

Mental filtering is a form of negative feelings that involve selectively focusing on the bad aspects of a situation while ignoring positive ones. Individuals with ADHD may fixate on one negative detail of a situation like: mistakes, criticisms, or failures while disregarding their accomplishments and strengths. It’s important to consciously acknowledge and celebrate positive experiences, achievements, and qualities. By intentionally shifting the focus towards the positive, individuals can cultivate a more balanced and realistic perspective. This can be helped by and monitored from a mental health professional who are educated in these mental health conditions

Common Cognitive Distortions :

When downgrading feelings Form a Larger Negative thought Pattern: Negative thinking patterns often encompass various cognitive distortions, such as mind reading and selective abstraction. Mind reading involves assuming that others hold negative opinions or thoughts about oneself without concrete evidence. Selective abstraction refers to the tendency to focus on isolated negative details while ignoring the broader context. Identifying and challenging these distortions is crucial in cultivating a more balanced and realistic perspective. By recognizing that these distortions are not objective truths, individuals can begin to break free from their previously negative way of thinking

Magnification or Catastrophizing:

Magnification involves blowing things out of proportion or exaggerating their significance. Catastrophizing takes magnification a step further, imagining the worst possible outcomes. These common cognitive distortions can fuel anxiety which impacts your mental health, and hinder problem-solving. Engage in cognitive restructuring techniques to reframe situations more accurately and realistically. By challenging the exaggerated thoughts and considering more realistic alternatives, individuals can reduce anxiety and approach challenges with a clearer mindset.

Discounting the Positive:

Discounting the positive involves downplaying or dismissing positive events, compliments, or accomplishments. Individuals with ADHD may struggle with receiving positive feedback or attributing it to external factors rather than acknowledging their own efforts. Practice gratitude and self-compassion to counteract discounting the positive and foster a healthier self-esteem. By recognizing and internalizing positive events, individuals can build self-confidence and more positive outcomes.

Inability to Be Wrong:

Individuals with ADHD may struggle with admitting mistakes or accepting constructive feedback due to fear of failure or rejection. Encouraging a growth mindset and normalizing errors can help individuals overcome this fear, embrace self-improvement, and reduce the impact of negative thoughts associated with being wrong. By viewing mistakes as opportunities for learning and personal growth, individuals can alleviate the fear of being wrong and foster a more adaptive mindset.

How to Combat ANTS

Adults and children alike are affected by ANTS. Parent can help their children, or adults can support their friends or loved ones to reverse these negative thinking patterns, and build better mental resilience.

By fostering a nurturing environment, providing open communication, and teaching adaptive thinking skills, parents can help their children recognize and challenge negative thinking patterns effectively. Encouraging positive self-talk, providing constructive feedback, and promoting resilience can all contribute to the development of a healthy mindset in children with ADHD.

Overcoming automatic negative thoughts is crucial for individuals with ADHD for several reasons. First and foremost, automatic negative thoughts can exacerbate the challenges already faced by individuals with ADHD. The nature of ADHD, such as difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, can already lead to feelings of frustration, self-doubt, and a sense of being overwhelmed. Automatic negative thoughts further compound these challenges, intensifying negative emotions and impacting overall well-being. By overcoming automatic negative thoughts, individuals with ADHD can reduce the burden of negative thinking patterns and improve their mental and emotional state.

Additionally, automatic negative thoughts can hinder effective self-management and problem-solving skills. Negative thoughts often distort reality and lead to pessimistic outlooks, making it harder for individuals with ADHD to identify and pursue solutions. By overcoming automatic negative thoughts, individuals can gain a more realistic and balanced perspective, allowing them to approach challenges with clarity and resilience. This shift in thinking enables individuals to engage in proactive problem-solving, seek appropriate support when needed, and develop effective coping strategies. Ultimately, overcoming automatic negative thoughts empowers individuals with ADHD to take control of their thoughts and emotions, enhancing their ability to navigate daily life and reach their full potential.

There are various ways to begin this process, some of which are described below;

Practice Coping With Criticism:

Individuals with ADHD may be particularly sensitive to criticism, which can reinforce negative thinking and self-doubt.

Learning effective coping strategies, such as constructive self-reflection, seeking clarification, or engaging in open communication, can help navigate criticism and prevent it from spiraling into negative thoughts. By adopting a growth mindset and viewing criticism as an opportunity for growth, individuals can overcome the negative impact of criticism.

Control Fallacies:

Control fallacies involve believing that one has either complete control or no control over a situation. Individuals with ADHD may feel overwhelmed by their lack of control over their thoughts or behaviors, leading to feelings of helplessness and self-blame.

Cultivating self-compassion and focusing on manageable actions can help regain a sense of control. By accepting that some things are beyond one’s control, individuals can redirect their focus and energy towards areas they can influence.

Personalization and Self-Blame:

Personalization occurs when individuals with ADHD blame themselves excessively for negative events or outcomes, even when they are not directly responsible.

Addressing personalization involves recognizing the complexity of situations and acknowledging external factors beyond one’s control. By practicing self-compassion and reframing negative events in a broader context, individuals can reduce negative thought patterns and foster a more balanced perspective to prevent impact on their mental health.

Fairness Fallacies:

Fairness fallacies involve the belief that life should be fair, just, or equitable at all times. These cognitive distortions can be the cause of anxiousness and frustration that feels outside of one’s control. Individuals with ADHD may perceive setbacks or challenges as inherently unfair, leading to resentment and negativity.

Shifting focus from fairness to personal growth and resilience can help overcome this cognitive distortion. By accepting that life is not always fair, individuals can develop the resilience to face challenges and pursue personal goals despite obstacles.

Change Fallacies:

Change fallacies refer to the belief that one cannot change or that change is impossible. These cognitive distortions can hinder personal growth, self-improvement, and recovery from negative thinking patterns.

Recognize that change is possible and focus on small steps towards progress. By embracing a growth mindset and actively seeking personal development, individuals with ADHD can break free from the limitations of change fallacies and experience positive transformations.


Imperatives involve rigid rules or “should” statements that individuals with ADHD impose on themselves. These self-imposed expectations can lead to self-criticism and frustration.

Replacing imperatives with more flexible and compassionate self-talk can alleviate the pressure and promote a healthier mindset. By embracing self-acceptance and setting realistic expectations, individuals can reduce the burden of imperatives and cultivate a more balanced and self-compassionate approach free of negative feelings towards oneself

Minimizing or Discounting:

Minimizing or discounting involves downplaying positive events, minimizing accomplishments, or dismissing positive feedback. Individuals with ADHD may struggle with accepting and internalizing positive experiences.

It is essential to recognize and embrace personal achievements, no matter how small, to counteract minimizing or discounting tendencies. By acknowledging and celebrating one’s successes, individuals can boost their self-esteem and develop a more positive self-perception.


Overthinking involves the following cognitive distortions; excessive rumination, analyzing, and second-guessing, often leading to anxiety and indecisiveness. Individuals with ADHD may find themselves trapped in endless loops of thoughts, making it challenging to break free from negative thinking.

Practicing mindfulness, setting boundaries, and engaging in relaxation techniques can help manage overthinking tendencies. By redirecting attention and practicing present-moment awareness, individuals can reduce overthinking and promote mental clarity.

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A Fun Way to Overcome Automatic Negative Thoughts

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Through a research-based process, students and adults develop an awareness to catch their cognitive distortion tendency leading to negative thoughts. They also can make a connection between their actions and the underlying beliefs that lead to certain emotions or undesirable behaviors.

For many students and adults, awareness of thoughts does not come naturally. For individuals with ADD, this is even more so. Since this is a cognitive-based disability, its takes time, attention, and effort to rewire the brain and form new neurological patterns. Two prominent researches, Jeffrey Schwartz and Rebecca Gladding, developed a fun 4-step process to help adults change bad habits, shift common negative thinking patterns, end unhealthy thinking, and take control of their life. This process is described below. 

The four steps to combat automatic negative thoughts called relabel, reframe, refocus, and revalue.

This process was developed to help individuals recognize and eliminate problematic and negative thoughts. A few ANTs are fine and expected at times. Eventually the negative interpretation of various events can multiply the ANTs and lead to an overwhelming feeling of despair destroying what would have been a positive experience.

The first step in this process is to recognize the negative thought and question its validity. For example, if someone thinks, “I got a 67 on my Science test. I’m going to fail this subject,” they would pause and ask themselves if this thought is absolutely true. By challenging the accuracy of the thought, individuals can gain a more objective perspective.

The next step is to relabel the negative thought, identifying the specific cognitive distortion involved. For instance, the individual might realize that they are magnifying the situation and blowing it out of proportion. By relabeling the negative thought as a cognitive distortion, individuals can distance themselves from it and reduce its influence on their emotions and behavior.

Once the negative thought has been recognized and relabeled, it’s time to replace it with a more balanced and constructive thought. In the example given, the person might replace the negative thought with a more realistic one, such as, “I don’t like this grade, but I have performed well on other quizzes this year. I will make flashcards and study for the next quiz on Friday to improve my grade.” By actively replacing the negative thought with a positive and actionable statement, individuals can shift their focus towards problem-solving and taking proactive steps to address the situation.

The process of “Stomping ANTs” empowers individuals to challenge the automatic negative thoughts that often arise in their minds and replace them with more rational and constructive alternatives. By recognizing, relabeling, and replacing negative thoughts, individuals can break free from the grip of ANTs and cultivate a more positive and resilient mindset.

This technique can be particularly helpful for individuals with ADHD, as it provides a structured approach to managing their thought patterns and promoting mental well-being. Teachers and parents can use this approach as described, or through the Angry Ants: Therapy Game for Negative Thoughts

Overcoming a mind that automatically turns to negative thoughts is a journey that requires patience, persistence, and self-compassion, particularly for individuals with ADHD. You can being to identify cognitive distortions by recognizing the different types of negative thought patterns, understanding their impact, and implementing effective strategies, individuals can break free from the grip of negative thoughts and mental health challenges to cultivate a more positive and resilient mindset. Remember, change takes time, but with consistent effort, it is possible to navigate the challenges of ADHD by replacing negative thoughts with healthier and more positive thought process.